sâmbătă, 27 iulie 2013

INFARCTUL MIOCARDIC ACUT

I.M.A este o zona de necroza ischemica in miocard produsa prin alterarea unei ramuri coronariene.
ETIOLOGIE:-90-95% cauza  este ateroscreloza coronariana.
FACTORI DECLANSATORI:-efort
                                                    -mese copioase
                                                    -stres
                                                    -infectii
                                                    -factori meteorologici
FACTORI FAVORIZANTI:-factori de risc:-varsta
                                                                         -sexul
                                                                         -H.T.A
                                                                         -diabet
                                                                         -colesterol
                                                                         -fumatul
                                                                         -obezitatea
                                                                         -stres
SEMNE:
A)durerea-acuta retrosternala sau pericardica
                 -senzatie de gheara
                 -dureaza aprox.30min pana la 48 ore
-anxietate
-teama
-panica
-senzatie de moarte iminenta
-greata si varsaturi
-mai rar diaree
-distonie abdominala
-senzatia de plenitudine epigastrica
-transpiratii reci
-ameteli
B)H.T.A-febra absenta la inceput
              -apare dupa 12-24 ore
              -semne obiective-paloare
                                         -tegumente reci si umede
                                         -puls rapid
CONDUITA DE URGENTA:
-asezarea bolnavului in decubit dorsal si interzicerea oricarei miscari
-linistirea pacientului
-monitorizarea functiilor vitale
-pozitionarea cat mai comoda
-la indicatia medicului se executa:    -sedarea durerii (Mialgin,Morfina)
                                                      -combaterea anxietatii (Diazepam)
                                                      -oxigenoterapie
                                                      -recoltarea produselor biologice
                                                      -administrarea trat.conform prescriptiilor

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